How do climate and geography influence life in Canada for immigrants?

How do climate and geography influence life in Canada for immigrants?

A Comparative Overview of the Canadian provinces and territories

Physical Geography of Canada

Ontario leads with the highest population at around 39%, followed by Quebec, the predominantly French-speaking province, with approximately 23%. Noteworthy percentages reside in British Columbia (13%), the prairies (18%), and along the Atlantic coast (7%), while the vast northern regions house just a third of 1% of the population.

The Canadian Shield around Hudson Bay and surrounding areas provide timber and minerals. The Maritime Provinces focus on fishing and agriculture, while the St. Lawrence River region and Prairie Provinces contribute dairy, agriculture, and significant farmland. Alberta, a hub for fossil fuel exploration, exports abundant coal, oil, and natural gas, including oil extracted from tar sands. The Rocky Mountains and coastal ranges in western Canada support mining and lumber mills, with Vancouver serving as a crucial port for Pacific Rim trade. The Yukon Territory, amid mountains, experienced a gold rush.

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Climate change adaptation in Canada

Navigating impacts and opportunities for climate change adaptation

Areas affected by climate change in Canada

Positioned in the northern hemisphere, Canada undergoes climate change at twice the global average rate. The Canadian Arctic experiences an even more accelerated warming—approximately three times the global rate. This rapid warming poses risks to northern communities and infrastructure due to sea-ice deterioration and permafrost changes. The Geological Survey of Canada (GSC) conducts vital geoscience research to inform land-use planning, aiding communities, industries, and regulators in adapting to changing environments in Canada’s North.

Surrounded by the Pacific, Arctic, and Atlantic Oceans, Canada faces climate change impacts on various ocean properties, including temperature, sea ice, sea level, acidity, and dissolved oxygen. Coastal communities are at an increased risk of flooding due to sea-level rise and extreme high-water events. The Geological Survey of Canada provides essential information, including relative sea-level projections, supporting planning, and adaptation tools like Fisheries and Oceans Canada’s Canadian Extreme Water Level Adaptation Tool.

Canada’s vast forests, covering a substantial land area and storing significant carbon, make global forest management a critical concern. The Canadian Forest Service (CFS) is actively identifying options for the forest sector to adapt to climate change. This includes leveraging new knowledge to reduce risks to ecosystems and optimize potential benefits. Collaborating with provinces, territories, universities, and industry, the CFS develops decision support tools for managers and policymakers, ensuring a proactive approach to climate change adaptation in Canada’s forests.

Trading partners and economic shift in the Canadian Economy

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